Transitioning from female to male is an individual experience, and no two transitions are alike. As part of the transitioning process, some people use testosterone injections to become more masculine 3. Some trans men will opt to undergo sex reassignment surgery, including removal of the breasts or genital surgery. Non-medical aspects of transitioning include choosing masculine clothing and behavior and the use of male pronouns. Consult your doctor for advice regarding hormone therapy and safe injecting practices.
Testosterone therapy causes the body to become more masculine 3. If you take testosterone injections, you can expect that your menstrual periods will stop, your hips will narrow, your shoulders will broaden and your neck, fingers and feet will thicken 3. Other physical effects from testosterone include a deeper voice, facial hair growth and changes in your weight and muscle mass 3. Changes in libido, mood and metabolism are also common with testosterone therapy 3.
Carbohydrates & Testosterone
The daily dosage of injected testosterone will depend on several factors, including your doctor's recommendations and your height and weight 3. A 2006 memorandum published by the Tom Waddell Health Center Transgender Team in San Francisco indicates that a typical dose of injected testosterone enanthate or testosterone cypionate is between 100 and 400 mg and injected every two to four weeks 3. Testosterone propionate can be injected once or twice weekly in doses of 100 to 200 mg. A controlled clinical study reported in the "Journal of Sexual Medicine" in 2008 used a 1,000 mg weekly dose of injected testosterone over a period of 54 weeks 3.
Testosterone Side Effects
Testosterone affects many aspects of your body and physical functioning 3. The 2008 study of subjects transitioning from female to male found that testosterone injections were generally safe at a 1,000 mg dosage 3. Bone mineral density was found to decrease over the course of the study; this effect was attributed to the presence of testosterone rather than estrogen 3. A study reported in 2009 found that long-term testosterone treatment had an effect on the endometrium, the lining of the uterus 23. Testosterone injections over a period of three years typically caused this uterus lining to atrophy, making it similar to that of a postmenopausal woman 3.
How do I Apply Testosterone Cream for Women?
Testosterone may interact with other medications 3. Drugs.com indicates that testosterone may increase your sensitivity to anticoagulant drugs, such as warfarin 3. If you take an anticoagulant, your dosage may need adjusting. If you have diabetes, testosterone may alter your blood glucose levels and therefore your insulin requirements 3. Testosterone injections are generally not recommended for patients with severe kidney, liver or heart conditions 3.
Carbohydrates & Testosterone
How do I Apply Testosterone Cream for Women?
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Negative Side Effects of Testosterone
Women's Body Sculpting Diet
Risks of Men Taking Female Hormones
Junel Side Effects
DHEA or Pregnenolone to Increase Testosterone
FTM Breast Reduction Exercises Without Surgery
- "Journal of Sexual Medicine"; Effects of Testosterone Undecanoate Administered Alone or in Combination with Letrozole or Dutasteride in Female to Male Transsexuals; M.C. Merriggiola, et al.; October 2008
- "Journal of Sexual Medicine"; Effect of Long-Term Testosterone Administration on the Endometrium of Female-to-Male (FtM) Transsexuals; A.M. Perroni, et al.; November 2009
- Drugs.com; Testosterone; 2011
- Tom Waddell Health Center; Protocols for Hormonal Reassignment of Gender; December 2006
- Stanworth RD, Jones TH. Testosterone for the aging male; current evidence and recommended practice. Clin Interv Aging. 2008;3(1):25–44. doi:10.2147/cia.s190
- McBride JA, Carson CC 3rd, Coward RM. Testosterone deficiency in the aging male. Ther Adv Urol. 2016;8(1):47–60. doi:10.1177/1756287215612961
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- Johnson JM, Nachtigall LB, Stern TA. The effect of testosterone levels on mood in men: a review. Psychosomatics. 2013;54(6):509-14.
- Rajfer J. Relationship between testosterone and erectile dysfunction. Rev Urol. 2000;2(2):122–128.
- Barrett-Connor E, Dam TT, Stone K, et al. The association of testosterone levels with overall sleep quality, sleep architecture, and sleep-disordered breathing. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(7):2602–2609. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-2622
- Beauchet O. Testosterone and cognitive function: current clinical evidence of a relationship. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155(6):773-81.
- Golds G, Houdek D, Arnason T. Male Hypogonadism and Osteoporosis: The Effects, Clinical Consequences, and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency in Bone Health. Int J Endocrinol. 2017;2017:4602129. doi:10.1155/2017/4602129
- Grossmann M, Thomas MC, Panagiotopoulos S, et al. Low testosterone levels are common and associated with insulin resistance in men with diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(5):1834-40.
- Cai Z, Xi H, Pan Y, et al. Effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. Lipids Health Dis. 2015;14:18. Published 2015 Mar 7. doi:10.1186/s12944-015-0014-5
- Ferrucci L, Maggio M, Bandinelli S, et al. Low testosterone levels and the risk of anemia in older men and women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(13):1380–1388. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.13.1380
- Nassar GN, Leslie SW. Physiology, Testosterone. [Updated 2018 Oct 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-.
- Rivas AM, Mulkey Z, Lado-Abeal J, Yarbrough S. Diagnosing and managing low serum testosterone. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2014;27(4):321–324. doi:10.1080/08998280.2014.11929145
- Kanakis GA, Nieschlag E. Klinefelter syndrome: more than hypogonadism. Metab Clin Exp. 2018;86:135-144.
- Sizar O, Schwartz J. Hypogonadism. [Updated 2019 Jun 4]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-.
- Nahata L, Yu RN, Bhasin S, Cohen LE. Management of testosterone therapy in adolescents and young men with hypogonadism: are we following adult clinical practice guidelines?. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2015;28(5-6):635-40.
- McBride JA, Carson CC, Coward RM. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency. Asian J Androl. 2015;17(2):177–186. doi:10.4103/1008-682X.143317
- Crawford ED, Poage W, Nyhuis A, et al. Measurement of testosterone: how important is a morning blood draw?. Curr Med Res Opin. 2015;31(10):1911-4.
- Wersinger SR, Haisenleder DJ, Lubahn DB, Rissman EF. Steroid feedback on gonadotropin release and pituitary gonadotropin subunit mRNA in mice lacking a functional estrogen receptor alpha. Endocrine. 1999;11(2):137-43.
- Rhoden EL, Estrada C, Levine L, Morgentaler A. The value of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in men with hypogonadism. J Urol. 2003;170(3):795-8.
- Snyder PJ, Kopperdahl DL, Stephens-Shields AJ, et al. Effect of Testosterone Treatment on Volumetric Bone Density and Strength in Older Men With Low Testosterone: A Controlled Clinical Trial [published correction appears in JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Apr 1;177(4):600] [published correction appears in JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Mar 1;179(3):457]. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(4):471–479. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.9539
- Huo S, Scialli AR, McGarvey S, et al. Treatment of Men for "Low Testosterone": A Systematic Review. PLoS One. 2016;11(9):e0162480. Published 2016 Sep 21. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0162480
- Armamento-Villareal R, Aguirre LE, Qualls C, Villareal DT. Effect of Lifestyle Intervention on the Hormonal Profile of Frail, Obese Older Men. J Nutr Health Aging. 2016;20(3):334–340. doi:10.1007/s12603-016-0698-x
- American Urological Association. Evaluation and management of testosterone deficiency.
- Grech A, Breck J, Heidelbaugh J. Adverse effects of testosterone replacement therapy: an update on the evidence and controversy. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2014;5(5):190–200. doi:10.1177/2042098614548680
- American Urological Association, Evaluation and Management of Testosterone Deficiency.
- Fillo J, Breza J Jr, Ondrusova M, Luha J, Ondrus D, Dubravicky J, et al. Results of long term testosterone replacement therapy in men with abdominal obesity, erectile dysfunction and testosterone deficiency. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2018;119(9):577-580. doi:10.4149/BLL_2018_061
- Tremellen K, McPhee N, Pearce K, Benson S, Schedlowski M, Engler H. Endotoxin-initiated inflammation reduces testosterone production in men of reproductive age. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Mar 1;314(3):E206-E213. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00279.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
Jae Allen has been a writer since 1999, with articles published in "The Hub," "Innocent Words" and "Rhythm." She has worked as a medical writer, paralegal, veterinary assistant, stage manager, session musician, ghostwriter and university professor. Allen specializes in travel, health/fitness, animals and other topics.