TENS, according to Sportsinjuryclinic.net, is a method of providing pain relief through the application of electrical current to an affected area (see Reference 1). For an ankle sprain, a number of small electrodes are placed on the injured ankle, where a specific frequency of electrical current is administered. The electrical stimulation of "mechanorepectors" within the muscle overrides the impulses emitted from irritated pain nerves, resulting in what is known as the "pain gate mechanism" and providing relief. TENS machines have three main variable settings that will depend on the type and severity of injury; these include frequency, intensity, and pulse width (see Reference 1).
There is evidence of electrical muscle stimulation being used in ancient times. Present-day TENS, however, is a relatively new medical venture. According to Verity Medical Co., TENS was contrived by the notion of gate control theory researched by Melzack and Wall in the 1960s (see Reference 2).
Sportsinjuryclinic.net states that, "It is thought that TENS can provide pain relief in the region of almost 70% of cases suffering from an acute injury" (see Reference 1). With few side effects, easy availability and such a high success rate, the benefits of electrical muscle stimulation are obvious. Where other and potentially more harmful treatment plans have failed, TENS, when used correctly, offers relief without the pain and worry of further damage. Pain should be minimal; a tingling sensation can be expected as electrical currents are administered to the muscle, but discomfort should not be an issue.
As always when engaging in a home treatment system, a health professional should be consulted. TENS should not be used if the potential patient has a pacemaker, circulatory problems or skin conditions, is epileptic or pregnant or is a child (see Reference 1). A doctor can correctly guide you in the positioning of electrodes in order to ensure the most effective placement for treatment and can also advise you on the frequency, intensity, and pulse width settings to ensure maximum relief.
TENS machines can be purchased from various retail specialists, such as TENSSystem.com or from BioMedical Life Systems for anywhere from $30 to several thousand dollars. Different models with multiple variations will need to be researched in order to best ascertain the right choice for the type and severity of the injury; this can be done by consulting a professional.