Effects of Masturbation on Testosterone
When it comes to masturbation, myths and old wives' tales abound as they have for millennia. A common myth erroneously states that frequent masturbation lowers a man's testosterone level. But that's simply not true!
For both men and women, masturbation does not trigger any significant changes in your sex hormone levels and typically poses no threat to other aspects of your physical and emotional well-being either.
Read on to learn about some of the general effects of abstinence, sex and masturbation on testosterone levels, as well as other factors that can influence the level of this important sex hormone.
Ejaculation, Masturbation and Testosterone
So, does masturbation increase testosterone? Numerous medical researchers have wondered about the possible effects of male ejaculation (solo or with a partner) on testosterone levels, particularly the short-term effects. But this isn't the easiest thing to study for a variety of reasons. For starters, a medical laboratory is a far cry from the circumstances and environment in which men typically masturbate.
Because of this, studies from the late 1970s through the early 2000s showed conflicting results. Some found ejaculation had no short-term effect on testosterone levels while at least one study found sexual activity led to a small, short-lived increase in testosterone levels among both men and women 4.
More recently, an innovative group of researchers took their work to a more real-world site — a U.S. sex club. They found that testosterone levels increased in 72 percent of men who participated in sexual activity at the club but in only 11 percent of those who just observed, as reported in the October 2011 issue of the Archives of Sexual Behavior 4.**
Although the effect of ejaculation on testosterone levels remains debatable, research seems to support the notion that there is likely a small, brief increase. This makes sense biologically because testosterone stimulates sperm production, among many other functions. If you've just ejaculated your stored sperm, a brief surge in testosterone would stimulate the production of new sperm.
Read more: 10 Scary Facts About Men's Sperm Count
- So, does masturbation increase testosterone?
- If you've just ejaculated your stored sperm, a brief surge in testosterone would stimulate the production of new sperm.
What Causes Erectile Dysfunction & Premature Ejaculation?
While masturbation doesn't significantly alter your testosterone level, abstaining from ejaculation via masturbation or sex with a partner can affect the level of this hormone in men.
A 2013 study published in the Journal of Zhejiang University found that among men abstaining from ejaculation, testosterone levels showed little fluctuation for the first two to five days. However, the testosterone level spiked up to nearly 150 percent of the baseline level on the seventh day of abstinence.
While the study mentioned above suggests that short-term abstinence can cause a spike in a man's testosterone level, another study published in the December 2001 issue of the Journal of Andrology found that long-term lack of sexual activity can lead to a lower testosterone level. The researchers found substantially reduced baseline testosterone levels in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) for a year or longer 1.
However, with successful, non-hormonal ED treatment leading to resumption of sexual activity, the study participants' testosterone levels significantly increased. These findings suggest that regular sexual activity — whether solo or with a partner — helps maintain testosterone levels over time.
Read more: 12 Things That Happen to Your Health When You Stop Having Sex
- While the study mentioned above suggests that short-term abstinence can cause a spike in a man's testosterone level, another study published in the December 2001 issue of the Journal of Andrology.
Masturbation and Sex Drive
Prostate Problems & Cycling
When it comes to your sex drive, it's complicated. While testosterone levels affect sex drive (libido) in both men and women, that's not the only factor at play 4.** Your brain exerts great influence on your sex drive via psychological and biological mechanisms.
From a biological perspective, frequent masturbation might temporarily affect your sex drive by reducing the number of receptors for testosterone and related hormones (androgens) in your brain. Hormones exert their effects via receptors on your body's cells. When testosterone binds to receptors in your brain, it stimulates your sex drive.
A 2007 study published in Neuroedocrinology and conducted on rats found that sexual satiety (mating until no longer interested in sex) led to a lack of sexual activity for about 72 hours. The researchers found that the lack of interest in sex correlated with a reduction in androgen receptors in the rats' brains despite no significant change in their testosterone levels.
There are obviously myriad differences between rats and humans, but this study at least suggests that excessive masturbation might result in a temporary decrease in sex drive despite no significant change in your testosterone level.
Read more: 7 Amazing Benefits of Masturbation
- When it comes to your sex drive, it's complicated.
- From a biological perspective, frequent masturbation might temporarily affect your sex drive by reducing the number of receptors for testosterone and related hormones (androgens in your brain.
Hormones produced by an area of the brain called the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland at the base of the brain serve as the primary regulators of testosterone production in both men and women. Testosterone levels vary depending on numerous factors including your sex, age, time of day and even the season of the year.
Several conditions can lead to an abnormally high or low testosterone level. Examples include:
- Reduced pituitary gland function (hypopituitarism)
- Certain genetic conditions such as Kallman syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome
- Some types of adrenal tumors
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women
- Testosterone deficiency syndrome in men
- Anabolic steroid abuse
Most men and women masturbate, either alone or with a partner. If you're concerned that this common sex practice might adversely affect your testosterone level, there's no need to worry. Based on current medical evidence, masturbation does not cause any significant change in your testosterone level.
What Causes Erectile Dysfunction & Premature Ejaculation?
Prostate Problems & Cycling
Transcendental Meditation Effects
Bicycling & Increased Testosterone Levels
The Side Effects of SSRIs & Maca Root
High Testosterone & Pregnancy
Will Drinking Green Tea Lower Androgen in Women?
Adrenaline & Testosterone
DHEA or Pregnenolone to Increase Testosterone
Does Coffee Increase Adrenaline?
- World Journal of Urology: Endocrine Response to Masturbation-Induced Orgasm in Healthy Men Following a 3-Week Sexual Abstinence
- Physiology and Behavior: Male and Female Salivary Testosterone Concentrations Before and After Sexual Activity
- Archives of Sexual Behavior: Salivary Testosterone Levels in Men at a U.S. Sex Club
- Physiology and Behavior: Seasonal Variation of Salivary Testosterone in Men, Normally Cycling Women, and Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives
- Canadian Medical Association Journal: Diagnosis and Management of Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome in Men: Clinical Practice Guideline
- PLoS One: Sexual Diversity in the United States: Results From a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adult Women and Men
- Stanworth RD, Jones TH. Testosterone for the aging male; current evidence and recommended practice. Clin Interv Aging. 2008;3(1):25–44. doi:10.2147/cia.s190
- McBride JA, Carson CC 3rd, Coward RM. Testosterone deficiency in the aging male. Ther Adv Urol. 2016;8(1):47–60. doi:10.1177/1756287215612961
- Kumar P, Kumar N, Thakur DS, Patidar A. Male hypogonadism: Symptoms and treatment. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010;1(3):297–301. doi:10.4103/0110-5558.72420
- Johnson JM, Nachtigall LB, Stern TA. The effect of testosterone levels on mood in men: a review. Psychosomatics. 2013;54(6):509-14.
- Rajfer J. Relationship between testosterone and erectile dysfunction. Rev Urol. 2000;2(2):122–128.
- Barrett-Connor E, Dam TT, Stone K, et al. The association of testosterone levels with overall sleep quality, sleep architecture, and sleep-disordered breathing. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(7):2602–2609. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-2622
- Beauchet O. Testosterone and cognitive function: current clinical evidence of a relationship. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155(6):773-81.
- Golds G, Houdek D, Arnason T. Male Hypogonadism and Osteoporosis: The Effects, Clinical Consequences, and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency in Bone Health. Int J Endocrinol. 2017;2017:4602129. doi:10.1155/2017/4602129
- Grossmann M, Thomas MC, Panagiotopoulos S, et al. Low testosterone levels are common and associated with insulin resistance in men with diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(5):1834-40.
- Cai Z, Xi H, Pan Y, et al. Effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. Lipids Health Dis. 2015;14:18. Published 2015 Mar 7. doi:10.1186/s12944-015-0014-5
- Ferrucci L, Maggio M, Bandinelli S, et al. Low testosterone levels and the risk of anemia in older men and women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(13):1380–1388. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.13.1380
- Nassar GN, Leslie SW. Physiology, Testosterone. [Updated 2018 Oct 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-.
- Rivas AM, Mulkey Z, Lado-Abeal J, Yarbrough S. Diagnosing and managing low serum testosterone. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2014;27(4):321–324. doi:10.1080/08998280.2014.11929145
- Kanakis GA, Nieschlag E. Klinefelter syndrome: more than hypogonadism. Metab Clin Exp. 2018;86:135-144.
- Sizar O, Schwartz J. Hypogonadism. [Updated 2019 Jun 4]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-.
- Nahata L, Yu RN, Bhasin S, Cohen LE. Management of testosterone therapy in adolescents and young men with hypogonadism: are we following adult clinical practice guidelines?. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2015;28(5-6):635-40.
- McBride JA, Carson CC, Coward RM. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency. Asian J Androl. 2015;17(2):177–186. doi:10.4103/1008-682X.143317
- Crawford ED, Poage W, Nyhuis A, et al. Measurement of testosterone: how important is a morning blood draw?. Curr Med Res Opin. 2015;31(10):1911-4.
- Wersinger SR, Haisenleder DJ, Lubahn DB, Rissman EF. Steroid feedback on gonadotropin release and pituitary gonadotropin subunit mRNA in mice lacking a functional estrogen receptor alpha. Endocrine. 1999;11(2):137-43.
- Rhoden EL, Estrada C, Levine L, Morgentaler A. The value of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in men with hypogonadism. J Urol. 2003;170(3):795-8.
- Snyder PJ, Kopperdahl DL, Stephens-Shields AJ, et al. Effect of Testosterone Treatment on Volumetric Bone Density and Strength in Older Men With Low Testosterone: A Controlled Clinical Trial [published correction appears in JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Apr 1;177(4):600] [published correction appears in JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Mar 1;179(3):457]. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(4):471–479. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.9539
- Huo S, Scialli AR, McGarvey S, et al. Treatment of Men for "Low Testosterone": A Systematic Review. PLoS One. 2016;11(9):e0162480. Published 2016 Sep 21. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0162480
- Armamento-Villareal R, Aguirre LE, Qualls C, Villareal DT. Effect of Lifestyle Intervention on the Hormonal Profile of Frail, Obese Older Men. J Nutr Health Aging. 2016;20(3):334–340. doi:10.1007/s12603-016-0698-x
- American Urological Association. Evaluation and management of testosterone deficiency.
- Grech A, Breck J, Heidelbaugh J. Adverse effects of testosterone replacement therapy: an update on the evidence and controversy. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2014;5(5):190–200. doi:10.1177/2042098614548680
- American Urological Association, Evaluation and Management of Testosterone Deficiency.
- Fillo J, Breza J Jr, Ondrusova M, Luha J, Ondrus D, Dubravicky J, et al. Results of long term testosterone replacement therapy in men with abdominal obesity, erectile dysfunction and testosterone deficiency. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2018;119(9):577-580. doi:10.4149/BLL_2018_061
- Tremellen K, McPhee N, Pearce K, Benson S, Schedlowski M, Engler H. Endotoxin-initiated inflammation reduces testosterone production in men of reproductive age. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Mar 1;314(3):E206-E213. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00279.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
Dr. Tina M. St. John owns and operates a health communications and consulting firm. She is also an accomplished medical writer and editor, and was formerly a senior medical officer with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. St. John holds an M.D. from Emory University School of Medicine.