12 Health Trends That Are Not Healthy
While some health trends, like eating more whole foods, are worth the effort, others are more hype than fact-based. If you're lucky, an ineffective wellness product or routine turns out to be a simple waste of money or time. In worse cases, these products and techniques pose potentially serious health risks.
1. Raw Water
Raw water sounds healthy, but the reality is far more complicated. The "raw" part comes from the fact that this (expensive) water is untreated and comes from a "lava tube" in Oregon thanks to a company called Live Water. “The water is from a time when earth was pristine and is estimated to have matured below the surface for up to 10,000 years before surfacing,” claims Live Water, which also claims the water contains essential electrolytes and probiotics with “super high levels of natural silica." Sounds intriguing, but this untreated water can make you extremely sick thanks to bacteria in the water. Diarrhea anyone?
2. Fat-Free EVERYTHING
In the 1990s, many Americans avoided dietary fats, believing that a low-fat diet prevented weight gain, heart disease and various cancers — notions that turned out to be false. For most people, a healthy diet is moderate in fat, which should account for 20 to 35 percent of your daily calories and come from nutritious sources. Consuming too little fat can cause a variety of problems, including nutrient deficiencies, memory problems, skin problems and fatigue. While fat-free commercial foods, such as pastries and cookies, may sound healthier than their fat-containing counterparts, many are not. "In order to make many of these fat-free foods taste good and be shelf-stable food manufacturers add extra sugar and unhealthy food additives," says Los Angeles registered dietitian Julie Rose.
Read more: The Truth About Fat
3. "Cleansing" Away Toxins With Juice Fasts
Detox diet proponents claim that avoiding solid foods, sipping particular juices and taking "detoxifying" supplements allows the digestive system to eliminate toxins, leading to overall enhanced wellness. These notions are not upheld by science, however. "Our bodies are complex, with a balance of microorganisms that work in conjunction with our GI tract, liver and kidneys to filter, digest and detox our bodies of any unnecessary impurities," says Julie Duffy Dillon, a registered dietitian and eating disorder specialist in Greensboro, North Carolina. Juices and pills aren't needed for detoxing Dillon says. Many cleanses can have side effects, such as gas, bloating, diarrhea, muscle loss and weak immune function, according to both Harvard Medical School and the Journal of Family Practice.
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4. Hormone Injections
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The HCG Diet involves injections of human chorionic gonadotropin -- hormones women produce during pregnancy -- and consuming a mere 500 daily calories. This combo, said to produce rapid weight loss, can cause serious complications. "In extreme calorie restriction like the HCG diet, our body will try to save us by craving any food in sight, and give us signals to eat as much as possible," Dillon says. This commonly triggers bingeing, she said, and can lead to cyclic bingeing and starving and full-fledged eating disorders. No evidence shows that HCG leads to long term weight loss, and a CDC study showed low calorie diets could be dangerous. Potential side effects of HCG include bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, rashes, vision problems and wheezing.
Read more: 8 Nutrition and Fitness Myths Debunked by Science
5. Going Overboard on Calorie Cutting
Weight loss generally requires a caloric deficit, meaning you must burn more calories than you consume. While dietitian Dillon understands the desire to jumpstart weight loss with an extreme low calorie action plan, Dillon says it's unhealthy and ineffective. "All it does is throw the body into a starvation response and slow down the metabolism," she said. "The body will conserve energy." This can lead to eventual weight gain, nutrient deficiencies, bingeing, depressive moods, increased stress and, in severe cases, organ problems.
Read more: Find Out How Many Calories You Should Really Be Eating with MyPlate.
6. Super-Sizing Vitamin and Mineral Supplements
Over 50 percent of American adults take dietary supplements, according to a 2013 JAMA Internal Medicine report. While vitamins can provide health-promoting benefits in people with nutrient deficiencies, assuming that more is better and relying on pills instead of food poses problems. Supplements cannot replace foods nutritionally, Dillon says, nor can the body put exorbitant micronutrient doses to use. "Mega-dose supplements at the least provide us with expensive urine," she says, because the body excretes excesses of water-soluble nutrients. "At worst, it can provide toxic harmful levels." This can result from fat-soluble nutrient excesses. Nutrient toxicity can cause many symptoms, including vomiting, diarrhea, numbness, headaches, muscle weakness, blurred vision, hair loss and brittle nails.
Read more: 43 Supplements Exposed: Which Ones to Consider, Which Ones to Avoid
7. Assuming “Natural” Equals Safe
Herbal remedies have been used for centuries to promote health and eradicate illness, but many Americans mistakenly assume that “natural” equals safe when it comes to supplements. Very few valid studies support herbal remedies' safety or effectiveness, according to non-profit medical center the Cleveland Clinic. What’s more, herbal remedies aren't subject to the rigorous testing for safety, quality or usefulness that drugs undergo in the United States. Goldenseal, for example, a supplement used to manage constipation and inflammation, may cause heart abnormalities. Stimulant herbs used for boosted energy and weight loss, such as ephedra and bitter orange, can have potentially fatal effects. Before using an herbal remedy, seek guidance from your doctor or a registered dietitian.
Read more: Herbal Supplements: Helpful or Harmful?
8. Colonic Hydrotherapy
Colonic irrigation, also called colonic hydrotherapy, is a technique used in med-spas and alternative health centers to detoxify the body and treat conditions, such as chronic fatigue and constipation. A rubber tube is inserted into your rectum then into your colon, through which up to 20 gallons of water and possibly additives, such as soap, coffee or enzymes, are pumped in. It sits there while a technician massages your abdomen with the intent of loosening stool and releasing toxins. Then the waste is flushed out through the same tube. The practice hasn't been well studied, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine, and the premise isn't upheld by science; most bodies detoxify themselves naturally and irrigation isn't known to enhance health. Colonic irrigation can cause problems, however, such as electrolyte imbalances, infections and allergic reactions to additives used.
9. Sweating Off Pounds in Plastic
While shedding excess pounds is grueling, products marketed as quick fixes typically don't work -- sauna suits included. Sauna suits are plastic apparel worn over workout gear during exercise to increase sweat, facilitating increased weight loss. The problem with sauna suits, according to Alice! Health Promotion at Columbia University, is that you lose fluid, not fat. You can also experience complications mid-workout if your skin can't breathe and sweat, such as weakness, confusion, dizziness, coma and death. Eating a balanced diet that emphasizes nutrient-dense foods and exercising regularly are proven, safe means of weight control. Staying well-hydrated is also important for keeping healthy and fit.
Read more: The Dangers of Wrapping Your Stomach in Plastic
10. Cutting Carbs Like Crazy
While replacing low-nutrient carbohydrates, such as cookies and pretzels, with more nutrient dense foods is a wise choice, reducing all carbohydrates may be unnecessary. "There is a huge myth that carbs are bad," says Jenny Giblin, a certified nutrition coach and psychotherapist in New York and Hawaii. "It’s not about restricting them altogether, but choosing the right ones." You should choose complex sources, she said, which are fiber-rich, satiating and help ensure optimal brain and body function. Some examples of nutritious complex carbs include sweet potatoes, squash, beans, oatmeal, flaxseed and berries.
Read more: 16 Diet-Friendly Healthful Carbs
11. Going 100% Raw Vegan
Raw foods, such as fresh fruits, vegetables and seeds, are certainly nutritious. Eating only raw foods, however, can pose some risks. "A raw food diet can be very healthy," Giblin says, "however, you want to be sure that you are still meeting your nutritional needs." This includes nutrients raw food diets often lack, such as calcium and vitamins B-12 and D, Giblin points out. Consuming too little vitamin B-12, which derives mainly from animal products that are restricted from raw-food diets, can cause fatigue, constipation, appetite loss and numbness. Without enough vitamin D and calcium, which promote bone health, you can develop weak, breakable bones. If you choose to follow a vegan or raw vegan diet, you should consider taking a vitamin B-12 supplement and a vitamin D supplement. You can also produce vitamin D by spending more time in the sun however, it's important to limit exposure of skin to sunlight depending on your skin pigment in order to lower the risk for skin cancer.
Read more: 9 Ways to Help Avoid Vitamin D Deficiency
12. Over-Doing It With Protein
Protein provides amino acids, the building blocks of lean tissue. Like carbohydrates and fat, your body needs sufficient amounts to function properly -- but too much is, well, too much. With the popularity of low-carb diets, many Americans have begun to see protein-rich foods as foods you can eat freely without adverse consequences. While increased protein intake may enhance weight loss short term, according to the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, most people are unaware of the risks. A high-protein diet has been linked with kidney disease, kidney stones, osteoporosis and forms of cancer, says the PCRM. Consumed in excess, protein can also cause weight gain and leave little room in your diet for other healthy foods, such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables.
Read more: 18 Habits That Can Make you Fat
13. Going Gluten-Free, Without a Good Reason
Gluten-free diets are a saving grace if you are sensitive to gluten and essential treatment if you have celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder in which gluten damages your small intestine lining and hinders nutrient absorption. Eating gluten-free products will not necessarily help you lose weight, however. Gluten-free commercial products contain as many calories as their gluten-containing counterparts, or more. Risks of needlessly going gluten-free include nutrient deficiencies, constipation and a weakened immune system caused by a lack of helpful bacteria in your gut. If you believe you have gluten intolerance, seek guidance from your doctor.
What Do YOU Think?
Have you followed any of these health trends? What did you think of it, and what kind of results (or issues) did you experience? Do you disagree with our assessments? Is there anything we left off of this list that you think belongs on there? Leave a comment below and let us know.
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- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
- Office of Dietary Supplements: Vitamin D Fact Sheet
- Office of Dietary Supplements: Calcium Fact Sheet
- American Cancer Society: Lycopene
- NBC News: Experts Warn of Detox Diet Dangers
- Weight-Control Information Network: Weight Loss and Diet Myths
- U.S. News & World Report: HCG Diet Dangers: Is Fast Weight Loss Worth the Risk?
- Drugs.com: HCG Side Effects
- JAMA Internal Medicine: Why US Adults Use Dietary Supplements
- Health Central: 10 Signs of Vitamin or Mineral Toxicity
- National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Bitter Orange
- Johns Hopkins Medicine: Colonics: How Risky Are They?
- The Journal of Family Practice
- Harvard Medical School: The Dubious Practice of Detox
- The Dr. Oz Show: The HCG Diet: Fact Vs. Fiction
- Federal Trade Commission: Sensa and Three Other Marketers of Fad Weight-Loss Products Settle FTC Charges in Crackdown on Deceptive Advertising
- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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