People can experience two types of pain. "Normal" pain in response to bodily injury, such as a bruise, sprain or burn, is called nociceptive pain. In contrast, neuropathic pain arises when the nerves that transmit pain signals are damaged. Sensations associated with neuropathic pain typically include aching, burning, stabbing or an electrical shock feeling. People with neuropathic pain often experience a combination of pain sensations 1. Several neurological disorders can give rise to neuropathic pain.
If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.
Trigeminal neuralgia, or tic douloureux, is a chronic neuropathic pain disorder characterized by episodes of sudden, severe facial pain. Pain arises from the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensory messages to and from the face. People with trigeminal neuralgia describe their pain as an excruciating shock-like or burning sensation on one side of the lower face, cheek or jaw or around the eye 2. A pain attack typically lasts from several seconds to a few minutes. Trigeminal neuralgia most commonly occurs in people older than age 50, with women disproportionately affected. Although trigeminal neuralgia is not a life-threatening disorder, the pain attacks can prove disabling 2.
Causes of Head Numbness
Occipital neuralgia is a pain disorder caused by irritation or damage to the occipital nerves. Sporadic shock-like or shooting pains occur in conjunction with continuous burning, aching or throbbing pain that begins at the nape of the neck and radiates upward over the back of the head. Pain may also occur on the side of the head or behind the eye. Certain types of neck movement may provoke pain. Possible causes of irritation or injury to the occipital nerves include trauma to the back of the head, chronic neck muscle tension, arthritis of the spine bones of the neck, degenerative disk disease in the neck, diabetes-related nerve damage and tumors that compress the nerves.cause:
- Possible causes of irritation or injury to the occipital nerves include trauma to the back of the head
- chronic neck muscle tension
- arthritis of the spine bones of the neck
- degenerative disk disease in the neck
- diabetes-related nerve damage
- tumors that compress the nerves
- Occipital neuralgia is a pain disorder caused by irritation or damage to the occipital nerves.
- Certain types of neck movement may provoke pain.
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological condition characterized by inflammation of the nerves of the brain and body. The disease process leads to loss of myelin, a substance that insulates the nerves and aids in the transmission of nerve signals. People with multiple sclerosis may have abnormalities of the pain nerves, which can lead to shock-like, shooting, burning or stabbing sensations. Lhermitte's sign -- an electrical shock sensation that radiates down the spine with bending the head toward the chest -- is a classic symptom of multiple sclerosis. People with multiple sclerosis may also experience symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia 2.
- Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological condition characterized by inflammation of the nerves of the brain and body.
- People with multiple sclerosis may have abnormalities of the pain nerves, which can lead to shock-like, shooting, burning or stabbing sensations.
Underarm Shooting Pain
Many other conditions can cause neuropathic pain that may feel like electrical shocks. For example, people with diabetes or HIV, and those who have been treated with chemotherapy for cancer sometimes develop nerve damage known as peripheral neuropathy. A bout of shingles can lead to persistent pain at the site of the rash, which can also resemble an electrical shock. Some hereditary nervous system disorders can also cause this troublesome symptom.
- Many other conditions can cause neuropathic pain that may feel like electrical shocks.
Causes of Head Numbness
Underarm Shooting Pain
What Are the Causes of Jaw Pain & Pain in the Temples?
The Medical Conditions That Cause Weakness on the Left Side of the Body
What Happens to the Brain When You Get a Headache?
Cheek Bone Diseases
Causes of Temporary Blindness in One Eye
Causes of Leg & Arm Pain
5 Things That Cause Pain Behind the Ear and Down the Neck
About Trigeminal Neuralgia & Ear Pain
- The Merck Manual Professional Edition: Neuropathic Pain
- The Merck Manual Professional Edition: Trigeminal Neuralgia
- American Family Physician: Diagnosis and Management of Multiple Sclerosis
- The Merck Manual for Professional Edition: Pain, Introduction
- Current Neuropharmacology: Painful Peripheral Neuropathies
- Fallata A, Salter A, Tyry T, Cutter GR, Marrie RA. Trigeminal neuralgia commonly precedes the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Int J MS Care. 2017;19(5):240-246. doi:10.7224/1537-2073.2016-065
- American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Trigeminal neuralgia: causes, symptoms and treatments. Published 2020.
- Vargas A, Thomas K. Intravenous fosphenytoin for acute exacerbation of trigeminal neuralgia: case report and literature review. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2015;8(4):187-8. doi:10.1177/1756285615583202
- Cruccu G, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia: new classification and diagnostic grading for practice and research. Neurology. 2016;87(2):220-8. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000002840
- Di Stefano G, Maarbjerg S, Truini A. Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to multiple sclerosis: from the clinical picture to the treatment options. J Headache Pain. 2019;20(1):20. doi:10.1186/s10194-019-0969-0
- Gambeta E, Chichorro JG, Zamponi GW. Trigeminal neuralgia: An overview from pathophysiology to pharmacological treatments. Mol Pain. 2020;16:1744806920901890. doi:10.1177/1744806920901890
- Morra ME, Elgebaly A, Elmaraezy A, et al. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A therapy in trigeminal neuralgia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Headache Pain. 2016;17(1):63. doi:10.1186/s10194-016-0651-8
- National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Trigeminal Neuralgia. Updated December 31, 2019.
Dr. Tina M. St. John owns and operates a health communications and consulting firm. She is also an accomplished medical writer and editor, and was formerly a senior medical officer with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. St. John holds an M.D. from Emory University School of Medicine.