Molybdenum Deficiency Symptoms
Molybdenum is an essential trace element that contributes to the functions of your nervous system and kidneys. Molybdenum also plays a role in energy production on a cellular level. Although the specific functions of molybdenum are not well understood, the American Cancer Society notes that this element may have the potential to counteract the damaging effects of certain cancer drugs on the heart and lungs. Because the amount of molybdenum that your body requires for healthy function is very small, and the mineral occurs in many foods, deficiency is rare in humans.
A recommended dietary allowance, or RDA, for molybdenum was established in 2001 and is 45 micrograms for men and women ages 19 and older. The quantity of molybdenum in the foods you eat may vary according to the amount of molybdenum in the soil in which these foods are grown. Beans, peas, lentils, nuts, leafy vegetables and liver provide molybdenum.
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People who have a genetic condition that interferes with their absorption of molybdenum, or who receive nutrition intravenously due to a prolonged illness, may be at risk for molybdenum deficiency. Most healthy people get more than the RDA of molybdenum from dietary sources. According to the Linus Pauling Institute, the average American man gets 109 mcg of this element from dietary sources each day, and the average American woman gets 76 mcg daily.
Very few cases of molybdenum deficiency in humans have been documented. According to the Merck Manuals Online Medical Library, in 1967, a child with a genetic disorder that inhibited the utilization of molybdenum showed neurological symptoms and developmental delays as a result of the deficiency. Another documented deficiency, published in a November 1981 report in the “American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,” concerned a man who received intravenous nutrition for 18 months and developed an intolerance to certain amino acids – structural components of protein -- as a result of inadequate molybdenum.
Based on limited case studies, a molybdenum deficiency may cause metabolic disturbances that lead to developmental delays, seizures, visual alterations and neurological changes. The patient in the 1981 “American Journal of Clinical Nutrition” case report suffered from headaches, night blindness, and an accelerated heart and respiratory rate. The patient eventually became comatose, but recovered from his symptoms after his nutritional solution was supplemented with a form of molybdenum. More clinical research is required to determine the effects of molybdenum deficiency in the human diet.
- Based on limited case studies, a molybdenum deficiency may cause metabolic disturbances that lead to developmental delays, seizures, visual alterations and neurological changes.
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- Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University: Micronutrient Information Center: Minerals: Molybdenum
- American Cancer Society: Molybdenum
- The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library: Molybdenum Deficiency and Toxicity
- “American Journal of Clinical Nutrition”; Amino Acid Intolerance during Prolonged Total Parenteral Nutrition Reversed by Molybdate Therapy; Naji M. Abumrad, M.D., et al.; Nov. 1981 (PDF)
- Lewis, R.; Johns, L.; Meeker, J. et al. Exploratory analysis of the potential relationship between urinary molybdenum and bone mineral density among adult men and women from NHANES 2007-2010. Chemosphere. 2016 Dec;164:677-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.08.142.
- Momcilovic, B. A case report of acute human molybdenum toxicity from a dietary molybdenum supplement–a new member of the "Lucor metallicum" family. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 1999 Sep;50(3):289-97.
- National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application. Washington, D.C.; updated January 16, 2018.
- Tsongas, T.; Meglen, R.; Walravens, P. et al. Molybdenum in the diet: an estimate of average daily intake in the United States. Arc J Clin Nutrition. 1980;5(1):1103-7. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/33.5.1103.
- U.S. National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Washington, D.C.; updated January 2, 2019.
Anne Tourney specializes in health and nutrition topics. She is a registered nurse with experience in medical-surgical nursing, behavioral health and geriatrics. Tourney earned a Bachelor of Science in nursing from Regis University.