Dysphagia is a condition characterized by difficulty chewing and swallowing and sometimes pain. People with dysphagia may be unable to swallow at all or may have difficulty swallowing liquids, solids or saliva 1. You may require a modified diet to help you meet your nutritional needs and prevent aspiration. A doctor or speech therapist can help determine the appropriate diet consistency.
A pureed diet may be recommended if you have dysphagia. Pureed food should be smooth, homogeneous and cohesive, or pudding-like. To puree foods, use a blender or food processor and strain to remove any solid foods. Use appropriate liquids when pureeing foods, such as broth or gravy for meats, milk or cream for vegetables and starches and juice for fruits and desserts. Cook foods until soft and tender before pureeing. You may have difficulty meeting your nutritional needs with dysphagia and may benefit from eating several small meals a day versus three large meals. You may also want to add calorie boosters to your foods such as butter or sugar when appropriate.
- A pureed diet may be recommended if you have dysphagia.
- You may also want to add calorie boosters to your foods such as butter or sugar when appropriate.
Pureed Food Diet
Foods on a mechanical soft diet for dysphagia patients are chopped, ground or blended and prepared with added liquids to make swallowing easier 2. Foods allowed on a mechanical soft diet for dysphagia include:
- hot cereal
- ready-to-eat cereal soaked in milk
- canned fruit
- soft cooked vegetables
- scrambled eggs
- ground meat
- cooked beans
- cooked peas
- cottage cheese
- yogurt without fruit
- cream soups
- noodles 2
Avoid tough meats, nuts, seeds, raw fruits and vegetables and dried fruit on a mechanical soft diet 2.
The soft diet for dysphagia eliminates all foods that may be difficult to chew, such as raw fruits or vegetables, tough meats and chewy, sticky breads. Foods to avoid on the soft diet for dysphagia include:
- hard fruits
- hard vegetables
The Nectar Liquid Diet
In addition to having difficulty chewing and swallowing solid food, you may also have problems handling liquids with dysphagia and may require thickened liquids. Types of liquid thickness includes thin, nectar, honey and spoon-thick. Thin liquids include:
- ice cream
- broth-based soups
Nectar thick liquids include fruit nectars, maple syrup, nutritional supplements, eggnog and cream-based soups. Thickening agents are required to make liquids honey and spoon-thick. A honey liquid consistency should flow like honey, while a spoon thick liquid should resemble pudding. A doctor or speech therapist can provide instructions on how to thicken liquids.
- In addition to having difficulty chewing and swallowing solid food, you may also have problems handling liquids with dysphagia and may require thickened liquids.
- Thickening agents are required to make liquids honey and spoon-thick.
Pureed Food Diet
The Nectar Liquid Diet
Soft Diet List After Bowel Surgery
Diet After a Frenectomy
What Types of Food Are Considered a Clear Liquid Diet?
Mechanical Soft Diet Guidelines
List of Foods on a Soft Diet
Gastrointestinal Soft Diet
What Foods Are Allowed on a Bland Diet?
How to Reintroduce Solid Foods Into a Diet
- University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics: Dysphagia: When Hard to Swallow is Hard to Manage
- Medical University of South Carolina: Mechanical Soft Diet
- Solomon NP, Dietsch AM, Dietrich-Burns KE, Styrmisdottir EL, Armao CS. Dysphagia management and research in an acute-care military treatment facility: The role of applied informatics. Military Medicine. 2016;181(5S):138-144. doi:10.7205/milmed-d-15-00170.
- Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Eating Guide for Puréed and Soft Mechanical Diet. Updated April 2018.
- McCullough G, Pelletier C, Steele C National dysphagia diet: what to swallow? ASHA Leader. November 4:16, 27. doi:10.1044/leader.FTR3.08202003.16
- Steele C, Abdulrahman Alsanei W, Ayanikalath S, et al. The Influence of food texture and liquid consistency modification on swallowing physiology and function: A systematic review. Dysphagia. 2015;30(1):2-26. doi:10.1007/s00455-014-9578-x
- Vanhauwaert E, Matthys C, Verdonck L, et al. Low-residue and low-fiber diets in gastrointestinal disease management. Adv Nutr. 2015;6(6):820-7. doi:10.3945/an.115.009688
Jill Corleone is a registered dietitian and health coach who has been writing and lecturing on diet and health for more than 15 years. Her work has been featured on the Huffington Post, Diabetes Self-Management and in the book "Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation," edited by John R. Bach, M.D. Corleone holds a Bachelor of Science in nutrition.