Most people are probably familiar with the word "population," to mean the total number of people that make up a country, city or town or another particular area. But the term "clinical population" is targeting a specific group and is a term typically used in statistics and health studies.
A clinical population is a group of people that are studied for public health reasons. For example, a targeted group of people with a particular age range or gender will be studied to see the effects of different medications. Another group who have certain types of illnesses will be studied. When it comes to public health research, the goal is is estimating various outcomes for a broad target population.
The statistical method involves certain variables that are only available to a particular part of the study group. Variables are also measured on the larger population of a study group and are included as outcome predictors. The results from both groups are compared to produce estimates on a larger population.
The results that come from clinical studies are very helpful in determining how different groups of people within a large population will be affected by the different topics that are studied within a clinical population.
Part of a group that is being studied is referred to as a "sample" group. These are chosen randomly, but with collected scientific data that can be representative of a larger group. For example, if you collected data from 500 households in an area with 50,000 households, you can generalize the outcome of a study based on the demographic characteristics.