Melasma is a skin condition that can occur as a result of hormonal imbalances 1. Melasma is also known as cholasma and, while there is a definite genetic component to the disease, it is generally triggered by hormonal changes 1. The most common reasons for these hormonal imbalances to occur is pregnancy or the beginning of using hormonal birth control. Melasma occurs when the melanocytes (which are cells that cause skin pigmentation) are stimulated by abnormal levels of progesterone and estrogen 12. This causes these cells to produce extra levels of melanin (the compound responsible for skin pigmentation), resulting in skin discoloration 2.
The primary symptom of melasma is skin discoloration 1. Melasma can affect either the epidermis (top layer of skin) or the dermis (second layer of skin) or both, yielding different symptoms 1. Melasma of the epidermis tends to cause spots with a dark brown color and a well-defined border 1. Melasma of the dermis tends to cause lighter spots that are not as well defined 1. If the melasma is affecting both layers of the skin, it will cause a mixture of light and dark spots 1. Melasma of the epidermis tends to be easier to treat than melasma of the dermis, partly because the cells of the epidermis tend to be replenished more often 1.
What Are the Benefits of Kojic Acid?
Melasma can take a long time to treat 1. The most effective method of treatment is to correct the underlying hormonal imbalance (either having the pregnancy end in birth or by stopping the hormonal birth control). Other treatments involve using sun protection (such as sunscreen) all throughout the year, usage of bleaching creams, or using mild solutions of cleanser. This treatments may irritate the skin and cause post-inflammatory pigmentation 2. Other, stronger treatments include corticosteroid creams and salicylic acid to treat to peel off the pigments. These methods may not be completely successful and commonly need several months to be effective.
What Are the Benefits of Kojic Acid?
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- Handel AC, Miot LDB, Miot HA. Melasma: a clinical and epidemiological review. An Bras Dermatol. 2014;89(5):771-782. doi:10.1590/abd1806-4841.20143063
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- Cestari TF, Dantas LP, Boza JC. Acquired hyperpigmentations. An Bras Dermatol. 2014;89(1):11-25. doi:10.1590/abd1806-4841.20142353
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- Ogbechie-Godec OA, Elbuluk N. Melasma: an Up-to-Date Comprehensive Review. Dermatol Ther. 2017;7(3):305-318. doi:10.1007/s13555-017-0194-1
- Basit H, Godse KV, Al Aboud AM. Melasma. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2019.
- Pichardo R, Vallejos Q, Feldman SR, et al. The prevalence of melasma and its association with quality of life in adult male Latino migrant workers. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48(1):22-26. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.03778.x
- Sarkar R, Ailawadi P, Garg S. Melasma in Men: A Review of Clinical, Etiological, and Management Issues. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2018;11(2):53-59.
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- Vashi NA, Kundu RV. Facial hyperpigmentation: causes and treatment. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169 Suppl 3:41-56. doi:10.1111/bjd.12536
- Hasegawa K, Fujiwara R, Sato K, et al. Possible Involvement of Keratinocyte Growth Factor in the Persistence of Hyperpigmentation in both Human Facial Solar Lentigines and Melasma. Ann Dermatol. 2015;27(5):626-629. doi:10.5021/ad.2015.27.5.626
- Plensdorf S, Livieratos M, Dada N. Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2017;96(12):797-804.
- Shankar K, Godse K, Aurangabadkar S, et al. Evidence-based treatment for melasma: expert opinion and a review. Dermatol Ther. 2014;4(2):165-186. doi:10.1007/s13555-014-0064-z
- Grimes PE, Ijaz S, Nashawati R, Kwak D. New oral and topical approaches for the treatment of melasma. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2019;5(1):30-36. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2018.09.004
- Handa S, De D, Khullar G, Radotra BD, Sachdeva N. The clinicoaetiological, hormonal and histopathological characteristics of melasma in men. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2018;43(1):36-41. doi:10.1111/ced.13234
- Lee A-Y. Recent progress in melasma pathogenesis. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2015;28(6):648-660. doi:10.1111/pcmr.12404
Adam Cloe has been published in various scientific journals, including the "Journal of Biochemistry." He is currently a pathology resident at the University of Chicago. Cloe holds a Bachelor of Arts in biochemistry from Boston University, a M.D. from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. in pathology from the University of Chicago.