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Tea tree oil can be used as an effective topical application for the treatment of infections due to a variety of microbial and viral agents, including herpes simplex, influenza virus subtype H1N1 and human papilloma virus. Though results of recent clinical research have found beneficial properties of tea tree oil in treating viral infections, consult a physician before using essential oils to combat these pathogens.

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Tea Tree Oil

Tea Tree Oil, TTO, is distilled from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, which is indigenous to the northeast coast of New South Wales, Australia.

Treating the Influenza Virus with Tea Tree Oil

The December 2009 issue of “Letters in Applied Microbiology” published a study investigating the antiviral activity of TTO and its main component, terpinen-4-ol 1. The results of the study demonstrated that TTO and some of its constituents possess inhibitory effects on influenza virus subtype H1N1. The authors further found that none of the tested compounds had the ability to inactivate viral particles individually. They concluded that TTO has an antiviral activity against influenza virus subtype H1N1 only, principally attributed to terpinen-4-ol, and TTO is a promising drug in the management of influenza infections.

The same authors published a follow-up study in the January 2011 issue of “Antiviral Research.” Here, they investigated the action of TTO and its active components against different steps of the replicative cycle of influenza virus subtype H1N1 in dog kidney cells at different times after infection 2. These experiments showed that viral replication was significantly inhibited if TTO was added within two hours after infection of the cells, which indicated interference at the beginning of the viral replicative cycle during the adsorption step, or the actual entering of the virus into the host cell. The results suggest that TTO did not interfere with attachment of the virus to the cell.

Human Papilloma Virus

The November 2008 issue of “Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice” detailed the first clinical study in which TTO was used for the successful treatment with of a pediatric patient with warts on her right middle finger 3. The clinicians applied TTO topically to the infection once daily for 12 days and found complete viral clearance of the infected areas. This study emphasizes the potential use of TTO in the treatment of common warts due to human papilloma virus.

Effective Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus

An article appearing in the January 2004 issue of “Phytotherapy Research” contained a study of essential oils from fresh leaves of several related species of the genus Melaleuca 24. The oils were distilled, analyzed and rated on efficacy as antimicrobials and antivirals against Herpes simplex virus type 1, HSV-1, the causive agent of oral and genital herpes in humans. The antiviral properties of these oils were studied in African green monkey kidney cells infected with HSV-1 and found to be an effective treatment by inhibiting the replication of viral particles and preventing infection of surrounding cells.

The Wrap Up

Tea tree oil can be used as an effective topical application for the treatment of infections due to a variety of microbial and viral agents, including herpes simplex, influenza virus subtype H1N1 and human papilloma virus. They concluded that TTO has an antiviral activity against influenza virus subtype H1N1 only, principally attributed to terpinen-4-ol, and TTO is a promising drug in the management of influenza infections. This study emphasizes the potential use of TTO in the treatment of common warts due to human papilloma virus. An article appearing in the January 2004 issue of “Phytotherapy Research” contained a study of essential oils from fresh leaves of several related species of the genus Melaleuca oil on Influenza virus A/PR/8: Study on the mechanism of action; A Garozzo et al. ;

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