The human itch mite infects people of all ages, social classes and races the world over. The American Osteopathic College of Dermatology estimates that more than 300 million people become infested with the human itch mite each year. The infestation, called scabies, frequently occurs in crowded environments such as those found in day care centers, jails and nursing homes. Scabies transmission occurs through prolonged skin-to-skin contact. According the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, adults commonly acquire scabies through sexual contact with an infected partner 1. The mite variety that infects humans feeds exclusively on human skin. Dogs, cats and other animals do not transmit scabies to people.
The mites are microscopic, wingless, parasites that bite skin and feed off tiny amounts of human blood. Their bite causes an inflammatory skin response and often itching and burning of the skin. Typically, the itching sensation intensifies at night.
The female mite is attracted by warmth. Crevices and folds in human skin offer the warmth she craves, as well as protection. The mite also hides at the waistline, under watch bands and bracelets, and even under fingernails.
- The mites are microscopic, wingless, parasites that bite skin and feed off tiny amounts of human blood.
- Typically, the itching sensation intensifies at night.
Grass Mite Bites
Rashes are also common in mite infestations as the body develops an allergic response to the mite’s secretions. Mite-infested skin becomes red and inflamed and small pimple-like infections, can develop. The scabies rash resembles hives.
When diagnosing a mite infection, doctors frequently look for trails just below the surface of the skin, within the epidermis. These trails indicate where the female mite has tunneled to lay her eggs. The burrows appear as raised, bumpy grayish-white or skin colored lines.
Red Itchy Bites on the Skin
Crusted scabies is an indication of the number of mites rather than a variation of mite. Some people with this infestation have more than two million mites feasting on their skin at a time. In response to the overwhelming number of bites it receives, the skin thickens and crusts.
Because of the sheer number of mites involved in a Norwegian scabies infestation, the risk of contagion increases exponentially. Transmission not only occurs through direct skin-to-skin contact, but can also occur through contact with the clothing and/or bedding of an infested individual.
- Crusted scabies is an indication of the number of mites rather than a variation of mite.
- Because of the sheer number of mites involved in a Norwegian scabies infestation, the risk of contagion increases exponentially.
Grass Mite Bites
Red Itchy Bites on the Skin
Mites That Live in a Human's Hair
What Happens If Scabies Goes Untreated?
What Do Scabies Look Like on Human Skin?
How to Tell if You Have Scabies
Signs & Symptoms of Human Skin Mites
What Causes Itchy Skin in Children?
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Parasitic Disease Information
- Patient UK: Scabies
- Mccarthy JS, Kemp DJ, Walton SF, Currie BJ. Scabies: more than just an irritation. Postgrad Med J. 2004;80(945):382-7. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2003.014563
- Currier RW, Walton SF, Currie BJ. Scabies in animals and humans: history, evolutionary perspectives, and modern clinical management. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1230:E50-60. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06364.x
- Makigami K, Ohtaki N, Ishii N, Tamashiro T, Yoshida S, Yasumura S. Risk factors for recurrence of scabies: a retrospective study of scabies patients in a long-term care hospital. J Dermatol. 2011;38(9):874-9. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2011.01199.x
- Crusted scabies. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. Jun 17, 2019.
- Leistner R, Buchwald D, Beyer M, Philipp S. Scabies outbreak among healthcare workers in a German acute care hospital. J Infect Prev. 2017;18(4):189-192. doi:10.1177/1757177417690920
- Grahofer A, Bannoehr J, Nathues H, Roosje P. Sarcoptes infestation in two miniature pigs with zoonotic transmission - a case report. BMC Vet Res. 2018 Mar 13;14(1):91. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1420-5.
- Ross DA. The scabies problem on active service.J R Army Med Corps. 2014 Jun;160 Suppl 1:i38-9. doi: 10.1136/jramc-2014-000294.
- Veraldi S, Cuka E, Francia C, Persico MC. Scabies acquired in Chinese massage centers. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2014 Oct;149(5):627-8.
Katherine Mariaca is a professional freelance journalist who specializes in alternative and complementary medicine, and skin and body care treatments. A longtime spa director and VP of skin care companies, Mariaca developed products and services for the spa industry. She earned a B.S. from Tufts and an M.F.A. from Lesley.