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What Is the Relationship Between Insulin & Glucose?

By Janin Santa ; Updated July 27, 2017

Glucose and insulin cannot exist in a healthy person without each other. They are interdependent on each other.


Glucose is a simple sugar, a carbohydate that is found in the blood. It is commonly referred to as blood glucose. It is essential component of the blood and number one fuel that supplies energy for the body.


Insulin is a protein hormone that acts as a keeper and detector of sugar in the body. When sugar needs to be released to be converted into energy, insulin accesses the increasing blood sugar and converts it into energy.

Healthy Sugar Burning

In a healthy person, the insulin is available ready to convert sugar in the blood, or blood glucose into energy.


In a person with diabetes mellitus, there is little to no insulin secreted from the pancreas and must be supplied by outside sources. The blood sugar is not regulated by the body either and so must be closely monitored every day.

Glucose Forms of Administration

Orally-administered glucose comes in 25 gram tube, an 80 gram bottle or 5 milligram tablets.

Insulin Forms of Administration

Injection-form insulin comes in vials, pre-filled syringes or cartridges that fit inside an insulin pump. Sometimes insulin from cattle or pig are used but more often the insulin is genetically, lab-created, human insulin.

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