The thyroid produces a hormone that regulates the body's metabolism. The thyroid hormone increases the rate at which the body's cells use energy. Thyroid hormone levels affect the body's temperature, mood, heart rate, energy levels and muscle function. If the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, it causes hyperthyroidism 1. Too little thyroid hormone causes hypothyroidism 2. Both kinds of thyroid disorders can cause high blood pressure (also known as hypertension), although they do so using different mechanisms and affect blood pressure in different ways 2.
- The thyroid produces a hormone that regulates the body's metabolism.
- If the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, it causes hyperthyroidism 1.
L-Carnitine & Hypothyroidism
Hyperthyroidism can be caused by the immune system stimulating the thyroid gland or by a tumor that causes increased thyroid hormone production 1. Hyperthyroidism can also be caused temporarily by certain infections that attack the thyroid, causing a transient increase in thyroid hormone being released 1. One of the effects of excess thyroid hormone is that it causes the heart to beat faster. As the heart beats faster, more blood is pushed through the arteries. This causes both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure to increase (hypertension) 2.
Abnormally low levels of thyroid hormone can also cause elevated blood pressure. Hypothyroidism can be caused insufficient iodine intake or by various conditions that impair the thyroid's production of thyroid hormone 23. It can also be caused by a problem in the pituitary gland that causes it to not stimulate the thyroid. One result of hypothyroidism is that the arteries are less pliable, a condition that is also known as increased vascular resistance 2. These stiffer arteries can cause an increase in diastolic blood pressure (the blood pressure when the heart is at rest).
L-Carnitine & Hypothyroidism
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- Mayo Clinic: Hyperthyroidism
- Hypothyroidism and Hypertension
- Thyroid Conditions
- Berta E, Lengyel I, Halmi S, et al. Hypertension in Thyroid Disorders. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019;10:482. doi:10.3389/fendo.2019.00482
- Blackburn BE, Ganz PA, Rowe K, et al. Aging-Related Disease Risks among Young Thyroid Cancer Survivors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017;26(12):1695-1704. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-0623
- American Cancer Society. Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer. Updated March 14, 2019.
- Margolick J, Chen W, Wiseman SM. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Unplanned Reoperations, Emergency Department Visits and Hospital Readmission After Thyroidectomy. Thyroid. 2018;28(5):624-638. doi:10.1089/thy.2017.0543
- Milling RV, Grimm D, Krüger M, et al. Pazopanib, Cabozantinib, and Vandetanib in the Treatment of Progressive Medullary Thyroid Cancer with a Special Focus on the Adverse Effects on Hypertension. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(10) doi:10.3390/ijms19103258
- Folkestad L, Brandt F, Brix T, et al. Total Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer Followed by Thyroid Storm due to Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody Stimulation of Metastatic Thyroid Tissue. Eur Thyroid J. 2017;6(5):276-280. doi:10.1159/000479061
- American Heart Association. What are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? Updated October 31, 2016.
Adam Cloe has been published in various scientific journals, including the "Journal of Biochemistry." He is currently a pathology resident at the University of Chicago. Cloe holds a Bachelor of Arts in biochemistry from Boston University, a M.D. from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. in pathology from the University of Chicago.