Blood vessels that lead to the brain can shrink with age or with certain medical conditions. But small vessel brain disease may or may not have any symptoms.
While some people with small vessel brain disease have no symptoms, others experience problems with thinking, mood and movement.
If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.
So what's going on? Blood vessels traveling from the heart branch into smaller vessels inside the brain, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the brain cells. These small vessels can change and sometimes shrink with age or with conditions like diabetes and high blood pressure.
People with small vessel brain disease develop damage in areas of the brain rich in nerve cell axons — cable-like structures responsible for communication between nerve cells — and in certain clusters of nerve cells deep within the brain. The damage occurs because of blockage of blood flow or bleeding from small blood vessels in the brain.
1. Thinking Problems
Small vessel brain disease can lead to thinking problems. When severe, this is called vascular dementia. Although estimates vary, a June 2014 BioMed Research International article reported that blood vessel problems account for 20 percent of dementia worldwide — second only to Alzheimer's disease.
But small vessel brain disease typically causes milder thinking problems than Alzheimer's disease 15. It mainly affects the ability to remember information. It may also produce difficulties with staying focused, problem solving and planning tasks. Overall, thinking and responding tend to be slower than usual.
Read more: 8 Ways to Keep Your Brain Sharp as You Age
2. Mood and Personality Changes
Mood and personality changes may also signal small vessel brain disease 4. Depression can occur alone or along with thinking problems and can worsen over time. In contrast to Alzheimer's disease, people with vascular dementia may have mood swings or personality changes early in the course of the disease.
They can be irritable or impatient or stop caring about themselves or their surroundings. People with small vessel brain disease may also develop uncontrollable and possibly inappropriate episodes of laughter or crying.
3. Strokes and Stroke-Related Symptoms
Small vessel brain disease commonly causes strokes, in which an area of the brain is deprived of oxygen and dies. Some strokes cause no obvious symptoms despite the brain damage. Other strokes cause sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the body, problems with coordination, difficulty speaking or swallowing or double vision.
Read more: Signs of a Mild Stroke
4. Movement Problems
People with small vessel brain disease typically accumulate tiny strokes over time, leading to balance problems and slow walking. They have an increased risk of falling, which generally occurs at an earlier disease stage than with Alzheimer's disease. Small vessel brain disease may also cause a sudden urge to urinate that may lead to accidents.
When to See a Doctor
Work with your doctor to control conditions that increase your risk for small vessel brain disease, such as diabetes and high blood pressure. Be sure to talk with your doctor if you notice changes in your memory, mood, balance or walking. Seek emergency medical attention if you experience sudden changes in your strength, sensation, speech, vision or coordination.
Reviewed by: Mary D. Daley, M.D.
Mature Adult man working in the office Mature Adult man working in the office While some people with small vessel brain disease have no symptoms, others experience problems with thinking, mood and movement. Small vessel brain disease commonly causes strokes, in which an area of the brain is deprived of oxygen and dies. These small vessels can change and sometimes shrink with age or with conditions like diabetes and high blood pressure.
- University of Cincinnati Memory Disorders Center: Understanding Memory Disorders -- Vascular Cognitive Impairment
- BioMed Research International: Global Epidemiology of Dementia: Alzheimer’s and Vascular Types
- Stroke Research and Treatment: Small Vessel Cerebrovascular Disease: The Past, Present, and Future
- Cerebrovascular Diseases: 2001–2011: A Decade of the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and DISability) Study: What Have We Learned About White Matter Changes and Small-Vessel Disease?
- Nature Reviews -- Neurology: Vascular Cognitive Impairment
- International Journal of Medical Sciences: Microbleeds and Silent Brain Infarctions Are Differently Associated With Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients With Advanced Periventricular Leukoaraiosis
- Neurology: Depression in Small-Vessel Disease Relates to White Matter Ultrastructural Damage, Not Disability
- Stroke: Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Lacunar Infarcts Contribute to the Presence of Mild Parkinsonian Signs
- Journal of Aging Research: Age-Related White Matter Changes