Music is the art of organizing tones, rhythms, tempos in a successive combination to create melodies and harmonies. Historically, music has played an integral part in many cultures. Music may stimulate certain hormones in the brain and body that promotes feelings of excitement, motivation, peace and serenity, depending on the variety of music. Additionally, music may play a part in the manner by which a person responds to stimulus in his surrounding environment.
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Reflexes are involuntary movements that your body performs without consciously choosing to do so. Reflexes are usually provoked by environmental stimuli such as pulling your hand away from a hot stove or reaching to catch a ball that has been thrown to you. Reflexes are controlled by the brain, and nervous system as messages from the brain quickly move through the nerves and into the muscles to perform specific functions.
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1996.'). Endorphins increase heart rate, constrict blood vessels to increase blood pressure and may help the brain to focus more clearly and help you become more alert to your surrounding environment.
In a 1984 study published in the Russian science journal Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova, research was done to test the effect that classical and variety music had on motor reaction time and its relationship to different parts of the brain 3. The study showed that, in general, music quickened response time and that the influence of variety music was much more effective than that of the classical music. The study also showed that response time was shorter when stimuli was present in the left visual field, controlled by the right side of the brain, than when stimuli was present in the right visual field, controlled by the left side of the brain.
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A study published in the Sport Psychologist in March 2009 by Bishop, Karageorghis and Kinrade tested the heart rate, affective responses and the reaction time of 54 tennis players who listened to selected music that differed in tempo and intensity 4. The results showed that faster music elicited more pleasant and aroused emotional states in the athletes. The researchers suggested that playing music as part of a pre-event routine when warming up and preparing for a game could improve overall athletic performance.
Elizabeth Miles holds a master's degree in Ethnomusicology from the University of California Los Angeles. In her book “Tune Your Brain,” Miles explains that music is key in orchestrating functions between the brain and the body 2.
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- The Journal of Neonatal Nursing, June Kaminski, MSN; Feb. 1996.
- “Tune Your Brain”; Elizabeth Miles; 2005.
- Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova:Effect of Music on Motor Reaction Time and Interhemispheric Relations; NN Zakharova and OI Ivashchenko; 1984
- The Sport Psychologist: Effects of Musically-Induced Emotions on Choice Reaction Time Performance Bishop, Karageorghis and Kinrade; 2009
- Gold BP, Frank MJ, Bogert B, Brattico E. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener. Front Psychol. 2013;4:541. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00541
- Thoma MV, La Marca R, Brönnimann R, Finkel L, Ehlert U, Nater UM. The effect of music on the human stress response. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(8):e70156. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070156
- Wansink B, van Ittersum K. Fast food restaurant lighting and music can reduce calorie intake and increase satisfaction. Psychol Rep. 2012;111(1):228-32. doi:10.2466/01.PR0.111.4.228-232
- Ludke KM, Ferreira F, Overy K. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning. Mem Cognit. 2014;42(1):41-52. doi:10.3758/s13421-013-0342-5
- Onieva-Zafra MD, Castro-Sánchez AM, Matarán-Peñarrocha GA, Moreno-Lorenzo C. Effect of music as nursing intervention for people diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Pain Manag Nurs. 2013;14(2):e39-46. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2010.09.004
- Hole J, Hirsch M, Ball E, Meads C. Music as an aid for postoperative recovery in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2015;386(10004):1659-71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60169-6
- Harmat L, Takács J, Bódizs R. Music improves sleep quality in students. J Adv Nurs. 2008;62(3):327-35. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04602.x
- Waterhouse J, Hudson P, Edwards B. Effects of music tempo upon submaximal cycling performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(4):662-9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00948.x
- Ferguson YL, Sheldon KM. Trying to be happier really can work: Two experimental studies. J Positive Psychol. 2013;8(1):23-33. doi:10.1080/17439760.2012.747000
- Raglio A, Attardo L, Gontero G, Rollino S, Groppo E, Granieri E. Effects of music and music therapy on mood in neurological patients. World J Psychiatry. 2015;5(1):68-78. doi:10.5498/wjp.v5.i1.68
- Snyder KL, Snaterse M, Donelan JM. Running perturbations reveal general strategies for step frequency selection. J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(8):1239-47. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01156.2011
Alexis Jenkins writes to motivate others in areas of health including nutrition, fitness training and improving lifestyle choices. She graduated with a Bachelor of Science in health science from Brigham Young University-Idaho.