Makers of golf balls have different attributes for the golf balls they make. Some balls are made for the professional golfer while others are made for the casual golfer. On the PGA tour, regulations are enforced on the type of ball that can be used. It doesn't matter what brand makes the ball. For the casual golfers, these regulations may be ignored.
Nike, the newest brand of ball, is designed for longer drives because it is fully enforced with titanium. There is no filler material in the ball.
For the all-around experience on the golf course, a Titleist ball is the best option. They have a multi-layer construction that lowers the spin rate, which is important upon impact with the ground.
Callaway produces balls for the casual and pro golfer alike. They make many varieties of balls that are heavier or lighter to help the golfer practice.
These are rare, but when a ball is labeled as a Floater, the ball is more dense. These balls, created by all companies, are designed to help golfers with their swing, not so much with distance.
Top Flite is one of the oldest makers of golf balls. The dimples on the ball are more concave than other balls which helps the balls move more upon impact with the ground. This ball is good for beginners.
Taylormade balls are lighter on the outside and heavier on the inside, which makes for better ball flight and trajectory. This ball is primarily the one used on tour.