Golf shafts come in five types: senior, ladies, stiff, extra stiff and regular. This denotes the amount of flex in the club. The type you choose is driven by your swing type; fast or slow and smooth or hitchy.
Generally, shafts are constructed of either steel or graphite. The type that is better for you depends again on your tolerance for cost (graphite is more expensive) and weight (steel weighs more). Steel also provides a sense of control for some golfers, which can improve their swing.
Golf clubs are made for a standard size golfer; for men, that means a man who stands about five foot 10 inches. For women, the standard shaft length assumes five foot 5 inches. If your height is significantly different, you may find that the standard shaft length is inadequate for your game.
The angle of the club face needs to fit your swing; it impacts how high or low the ball travels after you hit it. Analyzing the need for loft customization is a standard part of any club fitting. A normal loft works for most golfers; it differs for each of your clubs, however. Customize it if you have a marked tendency to hit too low or too high.
Your hand size as well as the club's internal core and shaft style determines the size of your grip. Changing the grip size is one of the most economical ways to fit your golf clubs.