The classification of body types into three categories called somatotypes was established in studies by the American psychologist William Sheldon (1898-1977). The types and their attributes are: Ectomorphic: thin build, long slender musculature, tends to be very lean Endomorphic: heavy build, thick musculature, tend to store excess fat Mesomorphic: large muscular build, naturally athletic type, tends to be lean Each of us has a percentage of each type with one usually more predominate than the others.
Diet for the Endomorph
Restricting dietary fat for the endomorphic body type is of utmost importance, followed closely by an overall reduction in calories.
Choose lean cuts of meat whenever possible. Ground beef should be 95 to 97 percent lean. Restrict chicken cuts to white meat (breasts and wings), and limit pork to loin cuts. All selections should be trimmed of any excess fat before cooking. Fish, especially cold-water varieties, are also good. Bake or roast meats instead of frying.
Buy grains and cereal products that are highest in fiber. Not only is fiber good for digestive system health, it helps a dieter feel full longer.
Limit fats and oils as much as possible. Cook with healthy olive and canola oils or with a light coating of cooking spray.
Count calories consumed for one week: Pocket-size calorie counters are usually available at grocery checkout areas or you can use one online. Study this count to determine areas where cuts can be made manageably. There are 3,500 calories per pound of body weight; to lose one pound per week, cut out 100 calories per day.
Eliminate or limit eating out. Learn to eat frequent smaller meals (five or six) instead of three large ones to prevent overeating.
Eat a good breakfast. It restarts the metabolism so the body begins burning calories. While asleep our body is in a postabsorptive state and the metabolism functions minimally, providing only enough energy for essential functions. A good breakfast boosts metabolism from its inactive state.
Exercise for the Endomorph
Engaging in aerobic exercise is a must, ideally five times per week. Choose a favorite so that boredom is not an issue, or mix them up. Choose from the gym’s treadmill, power-step or stair-climber, rowing machines or bikes. At home, walk briskly, run, cycle or swim.
Twenty minutes is the minimum time frame per session.
Use moderate intensity: Be able to speak words, but not to carry on a conversation.
Lift weights: Muscle contributes to fat burning. Endomorphs have plenty of muscle so work to refine them by using higher numbers of repetitions (12 to 15).
Combining aerobic conditioning with weight lifting is the method used by old-time bodybuilders to prepare for competition. It is performed by going through the entire standard series of weight-lifting exercises one after the other without rest.
Exercise large body parts first and work down to smaller ones with routines like this: Squat, leg curl, lat pull-down, bench press, shoulder press, triceps extension, biceps curl, calf raise, wrist curl. Perform one set of 12 to 15 repetitions for each exercise, three days per week. Add another complete set or add one exercise for each body part after two weeks.